No. 15/2018 (April 9, 2018)

Lithium-air batteries are getting closer.

The development of more efficient and longer-lasting batteries is one of the most urgent tasks in the development of electronics. Thanks to the work of American scientists from the University of Illinois at Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory, we are getting closer to implementing a new breakthrough technology for everyday use. The researchers have developed a new lithium-air battery. According to the study published in the "Nature" journal, lithium-air batteries should be able to hold five times more energy than lithium-ion batteries currently used in telephones, tablets, laptops, and electric cars.
The structure of the lithium-air battery
(Source: University of Illinois at Chicago)
Lithium-air batteries have been tempting scientists involved in the development of storage batteries for years. In the discharge phase, the lithium present in the anode combines with oxygen from the air and lithium peroxide is formed. The reverse process takes place during charging. However, there are several obstacles to the development of this technology. The first models were not able to operate in the environment of the natural air. The reason was the production of undesirable byproducts at the cathode, resulting from the lithium ions combining with carbon dioxide and water vapor contained in the air. As a result, the cathode became unable to work. Therefore, the previous experimental tests were conducted in pure oxygen tanks, which limited the practical use of such batteries. The research team has ultimately overcome these challenges by using a unique combination of anode, cathode and electrolyte, which has ensured proper battery operation in the natural environment. So, we may only hope that the new technology will soon come into everyday use and allow to part with our charging equipment for longer periods of time.

Encrypted access to Hikvision devices.

Hikvision IP NVRs and cameras can operate in IP CCTV systems in a secure mode provided by HTTPS protocol. Such adaptation of the standard HTTP protocol for secure communication over a computer network involves encryption by Transport Layer Security (TLS). During the connection with a device via a web browser with the use of the HTTPS protocol, the transmitted data (e.g. user name and password) is protected against eavesdropping and "man-in-the-middle" attacks.
HTTPS protocol can be activated in the advanced network settings section. The user may create a self-signed certificate, or install a certificate signed by an accredited certification authority.
HTTPS connections must be activated in the network settings. The default communication port is 443. The self-signed certificate can be generated on the device, or the user can install a certificate signed by a certification authority (CA). In the case of the self-signed certificate, the browser will communicate connection through an untrusted site. In turn, the certificate signed by a certification organization is payable.

Single-cable TERRA dSCR multiswitches.

Manufacturers of multiswitches and satellite receivers are becoming more and more convinced of the advantages provided by Unicable technology. An increasing number of satellite receivers available on the European market support the SCR/Unicable system in accordance with EN50494 and/or EN50607 standard. The implementations of the appropriate software dedicated to the individual receivers / set-top boxes enable their use in SMATV systems based on single-cable multiswitches distributing a full range of digital DVB-S/S2 signals. DIPOL offers two new models of the multiswitches, SRM-523 R80523 and SRM-543 R80543, that can decrease the number of trunk cables in the RF distribution systems.
Single-cable Cascadable dSCR Multiswitch: Terra SRM-521 (class A, passive Terr. TV path)
Single-cable Cascadable dSCR Multiswitch: Terra SRM-543 (class A, active terr. TV path)
SRM-523 R80523
SRM-543 R80543
The programmable SRM-523 and SRM-543 multiswitches have been equipped with one (the former) and two (the latter) pair/s of dSCR/Legacy + Terr. TV Out outputs. The dSCR mode allows for splitting the output signal for up to 32 SAT dSCR receivers/STBs capable of independent selection of satellite channels provided either by two coaxial cables (in the default 16+16 configuration - 16 receivers from one output) or by one coaxial cable (32 receivers from one output, after reprogramming by the PC102W R80561 programmer). In Legacy mode, each of the outputs can be used as typical SAT output (like in Universal LNBs or standard (legacy) multiswitches) for connecting a legacy SAT TV receiver). The built-in AGC system ensures stable 84 dBμV output level within the whole rated range of the input levels.
UHF TV Antenna: DIPOL 44/21-60 Tri DigitSatellite Dish INVERTO IDLB-STCF 120cm (light color)Universal QUATRO LNB: Inverto Red Extended 0.3dBAntenna Triplexer Terra DC015L (VHFI/II+FM-VHFIII-UHF)DAB / DVB-T Antenna: DIPOL-4/5-128-way SAT / TV / FM Splitter 1>8 Signal4-way SAT/TV/FM Splitter: Signal 1>4FSingle-cable Cascadable dSCR Multiswitch: Terra SRM-523 (class A, active terr. TV path)Switching Power Supply Terra PS202F (20V 2A, Digital SCR)Single-cable Cascadable dSCR Multiswitch: Terra SRM-523 (class A, active terr. TV path)
The diagram above shows an example installation based on cascadable single cable dSCR multiswitches

Channel-zero Encoding in Hikvision NVRs.

Users sometimes need to preview multiple channels of NVRs in real time using a web browser or CMS client software. To reduce bandwidth requirements without compromising the quality of the recorded video, that is, without the impact on the encoding parameters of the main stream and sub stream, Hikvision provides Channel-zero Encoding option. With this function, the user can preview images from 16 channels in one window of a web browser or the client software. The settings of the function include the maximum bit rate (up to 2 Mbps) and maximum frame rate (1/16 - 22 fps). The function can be activated locally or via an internet browser.
Activation of Channel-zero Encoding:
  • locally: Main Menu -> Settings -> Live View -> Channel 0 Encoding
  • remotely: Configuration -> Video/Audio -> Channel-zero
Channel-zero Encoding window in a web browser

Fire resistance classes of twisted-pair cables.

Till June 30, 2016, the conductors and cables were treated exclusively as electrical products subject to product safety regulations under the Low Voltage Directive (LVD) and were subject to CE marking by the manufacturer. After a year's transitional period, since July 1st, 2017, new rules established by EN50575 have imposed on the manufacturers (also importers and distributors) the obligation to commission relevant tests to notified certification bodies/laboratories in order to obtain certificates confirming the fire resistance classes of their products and to issue Declarations of Performance (DoP) with the relevant Euroclasses. The Euroclass of a construction product (including power, control and communication cables) allows for its classification in terms of reaction to fire according to the same rules and criteria across Europe. The markings of the fire classification can already be found on the labels of many construction products and will soon be required for all such products.
Construction Products Regulation (CPR) - new requirements for cables
List of Declarations of Performance of twisted-pair cablescompliant with CPR:
Code Name DoP 
Reaction to fire
E1408 NETSET U/UTP 5e   Eca
E1410 NETSET U/UTP PE+ żel  5e   Fca
E1412 NETSET U/UTP PE  5e  Fca
E1515 NETSET F/UTP  5e  Eca
E1517 NETSET F/UTP PE  5e  Fca
E1608 NETSET U/UTP   Eca

Complete information on the installation - reflectometry measurements.

Reflectometry measurements provide the most universal method of testing fiber optic systems. The GRANDWAY FHO3000-D26 L5828 reflectometer offers functionality similar to that of much more expensive devices of this category. The dynamic range of the L5828 model (26 dB at 1310 nm and 24 dB at 1550 nm) is suitable for measurements of even very long single-mode optical links (e.g. one hundred kilometers), but the device is also very useful for testing FTTH systems in buildings.
The use of a reflectometer by the installer is associated with a number of advantages and opportunities not available in the case of the transmission method (light source and power meter):
  • testing of optical fibers on reels before costly and time-consuming installation - to verify the continuity, attenuation, bends etc.
  • exact location of problems in optical paths (bad splices, excessive bends or loops, defective connectors)
  • verifying the quality of connectors used in the installation (reflectance, attenuation)
  • measuring of the parameters of a selected section of a link (using markers on the screen) with the attenuation and reflectance values of individual "events" - the installer gets exact information on excessive attenuation in the link caused e.g. by a concrete splice/connector, which is not available in the case of using a light source and optical power meter
  • macrobend detection and location - the installer knows where the optical cable has been laid improperly
Time-domain optical reflectometry measurements are usually performed in long fiber optic links. However, such measurements are also useful in building installations in order to verify if the total attenuation of any link does not exceed the maximum allowed value (e.g. 1.2 dB in Poland).
An example of visualization of a splice in the OTDR Viewer. The splice is located in the 3015 meter of the optical path. The reflectometer gives the attenuation of the event (in the case of the low quality splice the attenuation is 0.47 dB), as well as provides the attenuation of the section between the 2775 m and 3285 m (0.6 dB).

New products offered by DIPOL

IP to 4x DVB-C Transmodulator: TERRA miq-440 (100/1000Mbps, USB port)
IP to 4x DVB-C Transmodulator TERRA miq-440 (100/1000Mbps, USB port) R81631 converts IP stream (TSoIP) provided in UDP/RTP protocols (unicast/multicast SPTS and MPTS transmissions) and RTSP stream (from IP cameras) to DVB-C QAM standard. One miq-440 R81631 panel receives IP stream with bit rate up to 200 Mbps and creates 4 freely configurable neighboring DVB-C multiplexes, each with maximum bit rate up to 53 Mbps (the limit is determined by the DVB-C standard). In practice, each of the four multiplexes can carry 8 SD channels or 4-5 HD channels.
HD-TVI TURBO HD Camera Hikvision DS-2CE56D1T-IRM (ceiling, 1080p, 3.6mm, 0.01 lx, IR up 20m)
HD-TVI TURBO HD Camera Hikvision DS-2CE56D1T-IRM M750836 has been designed for use in CCTV systems based on HD-TVI DVRs. The camera provides 1080p video. With high sensitivity (0.01 lx) and built-in IR illuminator with range up to 20 m, the camera ensures high quality image in low light or even no-light conditions.

Compact IP Camera: Hikvision DS-2CD2T25FWD-I5 (2MP, 2.8mm, 0.005 lx, IR up to 50m, WDR, H.265/H.264)
Compact IP Camera Hikvision DS-2CD2T25FWD-I5 K17821 is dedicated for professional IP CCTV systems. The compact camera has been equipped with 2 MP 1/2.8" CMOS sensor providing good video coverage even in low-light conditions. Along with IR illuminator with range up to 50 m, the camera can also operate in complete darkness. The built-in 2.8 mm lens has a viewing angle of 108°. Hardware WDR with 120 dB dynamic range guarantees very good visibility of details both in light and dark regions of the scene. The IP67-rated housing of the camera protects the electronics against adverse weather conditions.

Worth reading

Video from IP security cameras distributed in (S)MATV and CATV systems. IP cameras do not generate video signals but data streams. The information cannot be distributed to televisions with the use of typical modulation methods employed in the case of analog cameras. The injection of the video information from IP CCTV cameras into an RF distribution network (a private or shared antenna system, CATV network etc.) requires application of intermediate devices. So far, the most popular solution has been the use of digital HDMI - DVB-T modulators (capable of transmission up to Full HD 1080p / 60 Hz). The HDMI signal carrying the video information from one or a number of IP cameras is available at the monitor output of the IP NVR in the IP CCTV system. In the case of one HDMI signal, it is sufficient to use a single channel HDMI to DVB-T modulator, otherwise one will need a multi-channel HDMI to DVB-T modulator (max. 4 channels). However, when the investor wants to have separate images from the cameras, the number of the channels is limited by the number of independent HDMI outputs in the NVR(s). And what about the situation when the number of the IP cameras that should independently provide the video and sound information is much higher, e.g. 12?... >>>more
Mix-440 R81611 converts IP stream provided in UDP/RTP protocols (unicast/multicast SPTS and MPTS transmissions) and RTSP stream (from IP cameras) to DVB-T COFDM standard

Protect - mobile DVRs